Caste Based Reservation in Indian Society


      If one could look at Indian history, one would observe that for a long time, our general public was inflexibly characterized into a social chain of importance which is called Caste System. Interestingly in India, this antiquated framework contains four noteworthy gatherings specifically The Brahmins (Priests/Teachers), the Kshatriyas (Kings/Warriors), the Vaishyas (Merchants) and in conclusion, the Shudras (Untouchables) These gatherings were resolved on birth instead of on legitimacy and used to control the lives of people through deciding their calling and in addition social standing. Indian Caste System was a technique for social stratification as well as included bringing about abominations on various individuals on standard premise simply on the criteria of position. Considering the disgraceful circumstance of individuals from lower ranks, the composers of Indian Constitution guaranteed that these gatherings were to be named Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST).

      On 13th December, 1946, the main Prime Minister of Independent India, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru moved the target determination of the Constitution which managed consideration of sufficient shields for minorities, in reverse and additionally tribal territories and ensuring the central privileges of the discouraged and other in reverse classes of the general public.[1] The extremely goal of reservation or governmental policy regarding minorities in society strategies in Indian Constitution was to give them measure up to circumstances in different fields, for example, instruction, legislative issues, organization, and so on which were prior denied to them under the harsh Caste System.

       Be that as it may, the reservation strategies in our nation fortified the station based blame lines as opposed to accomplishing the first target of debilitating Indian Caste System. Indeed, even following seven many years of autonomy, our governmental policy regarding minorities in society has properly neglected to give square with status and chance to each Indian resident under law. Actually, these strategies have spurred certain politically propelled stations to upset for reservation prompting savagery and resultant death toll and property which can be seen in various parts of India, for example, Jats (North India), Patels (Gujarat), Kapus (Andhra Pradesh), and so on. The divergence between the general population having a place with various ranks has expanded because of the adversarial state of mind appeared by each gathering.[2] Moreover, the absence of foundation for transportation and essential training in the provincial parts of the country, nonattendance of mindfulness in such rustic ranges, and so on guarantees that the advantages of reservation framework in India did not reach to everybody.

       The Indian Constitution under Article 15(4) of the Constitution of India clearly clarifies about confining of arrangements for liberation of socially and instructively ranks. In any case, the major lacunae of Article 15 and 16 of the Constitution is non-appearance of term “backward classes” which prompts disarray in approach settling on among our policymakers.  From time to time, the Indian Judiciary attempted to settle this difficulty through different choices, for example, M.R. Balaji v State of Mysore[3] where the Indian Supreme Court held that the caste may be relevant but not sole factor in assessing backward class. Furthermore, the poverty factor as only criteria was rejected[4] only to rephrase the contention that both poverty & caste are major condition for determining backwardness but not as sole factor by the Supreme Court of India.[5] Later the Apex Court tried to balance the need for maintaining efficiency & ensuring social justice through its decisions in Indra Sawhney v Union of India[6], M. Nagraj v Union of India[7] and its recent judgment in B.K. Pavitra v Union of India[8]. Be that as it may, the legal choices have simply helped with deciding the extension for giving the advantages of reservation approach to the general population having a place with specific gatherings instead of positively characterizing the expression “backward classes” The strategies have really demonstrated to do the inverse impact of what it was made out to be, it advances rank separation and unique treatment and denying different gatherings of equivalent open door. Such reservations sustain the thought of standing in the public eye which could make various segments among castes which bring out about the social fault-lines only to undermine the social stability required for better governance.   

      The very idea of reservation is against meritocracy which adversely affects our administration framework. One ought to note that legitimacy shouldn’t be traded off in any condition for the sake of social equity. Because of offering reservations, the Indian State is only advancing moderate accreditations rather than a legitimacy based framework which prompts poor exhibitions being reflected in top foundations. By virtue of low criteria for passage in instructive establishments, the understudies having a place with SC, ST and OBC understudies turned out to be under-arranged to survive the weight while they are additionally oppressed by the general classification understudies and additionally the staff some of the time. This dismal circumstance prompts suicides among these understudies which were generally come into spotlight after the demise of Rohith Vemula.

      At last, I believe that there is developing requirement for inspecting of our reservation arrangements. Right off the bat, the legislature ought to guarantee that the products of reservation strategies ought not delighted in by the smooth layer of SC/ST people group on the lines of OBC people group according to the guideline set around the Supreme Court in Indra Sawhney case. Moreover, the accentuation of the reservation ought to be more temperate premise as opposed to on station which is standard for present governmental policy regarding minorities in society. Additionally, the administration ought to be disheartened from allowing whatever other type of booking for political advantages for it disregards the sacred standard of our country. An answer for this issue is to enhance the nature of training. The principles of open and private schooling in India are at two separate levels. The state funded schools ought to grant quality instruction that can be considered as equivalent to its private partner. At exactly that point will India move towards turning into a libertarian culture with a superior education rate.


[1] M. L. Mathur, Social Justice: Constitution & Law, Encyclopaedia of Backward Classes, Vol-I, p.203

[2] R. Jagannathan, Meritocracy, not mediocrity is way ahead: Lessons from Sundar Pichai’s rise, First Post, 12th August, 2015

[3] AIR 1963 SC 649

[4] Janki Prasad Parimoo & Ors v State of Jammu & Kashmir, AIR 1970 SC 930

[5] K.S. Jayashree v State of Kerala, AIR 1976 SC 2381

[6] AIR 1993 SC 477

[7] (2006) 8 SCC 212

[8] Civil Appeal No. 2368 of 2011 (Decided on 10th February, 2017)

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