Legal Terms ( G )

Gag Order: When a judge issues an order prohibiting the attorneys and parties to go to the media or public with the information about the case, as he thinks it will influence the decision, it is called a gag order.

Gambling: To play a game for money or other stakes, or taking a risk for gaining an advantage.

It is a court order usually issued not against a debtor but a third party that holds funds for the debtor to set aside funds for the benefit of the creditor.

A court order seizing a person’s property, credit or salary through a third person known as a garnishee, for paying the debt of the creditor. 

General Damages: Pecuniary loss for injuries suffered, or breach of contract which cannot be calculated exactly, or cannot be given a value for the injuries are known as general damages. They include pain and suffering, harassment etc.

Generation Skipping Transfer Tax: A tax levied by the Federal Government on the money given or left to grandchildren or great grandchildren. The purpose of this is to prevent families from avoiding tax on property left by the grandparents.

Generation Skipping Trust: If a trust is designed for the principal beneficiary to be the grandchildren of the maker of the trust, with his children receiving only fixed income from it, it is called generation skipping trust. The main purpose is to avoid paying tax on the trust by the middle generation.

Genericide: A process by which a brand name or trademark has become a generic description for a product or service, rather than referring to the specific meaning intended by the brand or trademark holder. Some examples are Band-aid, Coke, Escalator, Q-tip and Beer.

Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA): An act passed by the Federal Government on 21st May, 2008, which prohibits discrimination by insurers and employers on the basis of genetic information.

Gift: Gift means the transfer by one person to another of any existing movable or immovable property, voluntarily and without any consideration in money or money’s worth. Any person who acquires any property or money under a gift is called a donee and a donor is the person who makes the gift to another.

Gift Tax: In the United States, if the value of a gift or combination of gifts from one person to another exceeds $13,000 a year, then a Federal tax called gift tax is levied on the gifts.

Golden Rule Argument: The golden rule argument is when the lawyers try and persuade the jury to make a decision on the case by trying to put themselves in the plaintiff’s shoes, and then deliver the verdict. This form of argument is not always preferred by all judges.

Good Cause: A legally substantial reason presented before a judge for a ruling, that is not arbitrary, irrational or unreasonable, is said to be a good cause.

Good Faith: A thing shall be deemed to be done in good faith, if it is in fact done sincerely and honestly, without any intention to defraud another person. 

Good Title: A title to a property that is free from any reasonable doubt, valid in law and does not hold a considerable chance of litigation.

Goods: Goods include all materials, articles, commodities and all other kinds of immovable property, but does not include newspapers, actionable claims, stocks, shares and securities.

Goods and Chattels: Personal property of any kind, but sometimes limited to tangible property.

Goodwill: The advantage or benefit which is acquired by a business, beyond the mere value of the capital, stocks, funds or property employed therein, in consequence of the general patronage and encouragement which it receives from consent or habitual customers.

Governing Law: A provision stipulated in the contract which determines which state laws should be followed in the event of a dispute.

Governmental Immunity: A personal favor granted by the government to its employees against any crime without the consent of the government.

Grace Period: The period of time beyond a particular date, during which a debtor not paying his debt will not be charged a fee. Usually most credit card companies give a grace period of 20 days before interest is charged.

Grand Jury: A body of persons chosen randomly and sworn to inquire into a matter of fact, and to declare the truth upon such evidence as is presented before them by a prosecutor. There are different types of juries, and grand juries do not decide whether a person is guilty or not, they only decide whether a person should stand trial.

Grand Jury Witness: A witness who testifies before a grand jury.

Grand Larceny: The unlawful taking and carrying away of personal property over a certain value set by state law, with the intent to deprive the rightful owner of it permanently.

Grand Theft: The theft of property or services whose value exceeds a specified amount and considered as a felony is called a grand theft.

Grandfather Clause: A provision or clause created by a new law, that exempts the persons who were already in the system and is applicable only to the persons that are new to the system is called a grandfather clause.

Grant: A grant may be defined as a transfer of property by an instrument in writing without the delivery of the possession of any subject matter thereof.

Grant deed: A deed to a property containing an implied or express promise that the transferor has a good title of the property, and that there are no encumbrances of any kind, or if there are, then they should be expressly mentioned in the deed.

Gratuitous: Something given voluntarily or not involving a return benefit, compensation or consideration.

Gross Estate: The total estate that a person owns at the time of his death, including his real and personal property, that may be passed by will or by intestate succession. While calculating the estate tax, the gross estate is taken into consideration.

Gross Income: The entire income of an individual or business from all sources, before subtracting pensions, exemptions or adjustments is called gross income.

Gross Lease: A lease in which the tenant pays a fixed amount of lease for the property, per month or year, irrespective of the maintenance, taxes and other costs that the landlord pays.

Gross Negligence: The intentional failure to perform a manifest duty in reckless disregard of the consequences as affecting the life or property of another is considered as gross negligence.

Grounds for Divorce: The legal reasons or facts and materials to be taken into consideration by the adjudicating authority while giving a divorce.

Group Insurance: A single or blanket insurance policy under which individuals in a group are covered as long as they remain a part of it.

Guarantee: Guarantee includes any obligation undertaken usually to agree to pay another’s debt or the document in which this assurance is made.

Guardian: A person who in the opinion of the competent authority is legally appointed to take charge of a minor or his property is called a guardian.

Guardian ad Litem: Where the defendant is a minor, the court shall appoint a proper person to be his/her guardian,who protects the interests of the child during the course of legal proceedings.

Guardianship: When the court appoints a guardian for a minor, the relationship that is created by law is called guardianship.

Guilty: A defendant is said to be guilty either if he admits that he has committed a crime or the finding by a judge or jury that the defendant has committed the crime.

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