Legal Terms ( J )

Jeopardy: A person is said to be in jeopardy when he or she is placed on trial and is at the risk of conviction and punishment. Jeopardy attaches after a jury is sworn to try the case.

Joint and Several: Usually used in a judgment of negligence or recovery of debt, when there are two or more defendants, each of the defendants are responsible for the entire debt or damages regardless of the individuals share.

Joinder: When various lawsuits or various parties are joined together in one lawsuit, because the factual conditions or issues are the same for all the parties it is called a joinder.

A judgment is the final court decree or order given by the judge based on all the facts and evidence presented by the parties.

Judicial Review: It is a process wherein the courts have the power to examine the decisions of the lower courts or executive and legislative actions to determine whether it is against the constitution. It has the power to revoke the act if it is against the principles of the constitution.

Judicial Proceeding: The entire process in the court by which a legal judgment is reached upon by the judge or jury is called a judicial proceeding.

Jump Bail: When a person fails to attend court after he is released on depositing bail, he is said to jump bail.

Juris Doctor: A juris doctor is the degree awarded to a student who has completed his or her graduation in law in the United States.

Jurisdiction: A valid legal authority to hear and give a judgment on a case. If a court does not have a valid jurisdiction, the judgment passed will not hold any value.

Jurisprudence: The word jurisprudence comes from the Latin word ‘juris prudentia’, which means the study of knowledge or science of law. It covers the study of the entire legal system and legal philosophies .

Jus Naturale: Latin term for ‘natural law’. It is the set of principles that are not derived from the constitution or any legal authority, but from the universe and are applicable to all human beings.

Just Cause: Also known as good cause or lawful cause, it means a legally valid or sufficient cause to prove your claim. The plaintiff has to prove to the court that there is a just cause for his claim to be granted.

Justice: The fair and undiscriminated treatment of all individuals while deciding on a judgment or a public officer authorized to decide cases in a court of justice.

Juvenile Court: A special court designed for hearing cases involving the rights, welfare and health of children under the age of 18. Children charged with a crime have their cases heard in juvenile courts.

Juvenile Delinquent: A minor charged with a crime is called a juvenile delinquent. They usually have different punishments that do not apply to adults, and are tried in juvenile courts.


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