ANIMAL TESTING – Animal testing refers to the experiments done on animals for various purposes such as for testing the effects of drugs and medicines or cosmetics or also using animals as research for various experiments relating to the human mind and body. In these experiments, the researchers seek to monitor and observe the changes in the behavior or biological patterns of an animal and then try to form conclusions as to how those changes will be reflected in humans. Right now, there are millions of rats, cats, dogs, mice, etc. who are locked in cages and numerous experiment laboratories across the world and they suffer in pain, anguish and frustration. There are many non-animal testing methods also that can be employed to test the medicines, drugs and cosmetics. Those methods are not only more humane but also much cheaper and faster.
Many experiments conducted today on animals are required by law but many of them are not and this has led to many countries implementing complete bans on the testing of certain types of substances on animals. Animal tests includes forcing the poor animals to inhale toxic gases and fumes, forcefully feeding the dogs pesticides and inserting corrosive and harmful liquids and chemicals into the eyes of the rabbits and the like. Interestingly, even if a product harms an animal, it can and is still sold out in the market to be used by humans. If this argument is accepted that even if the product was harmful to the animals, it might be useful for humans, the converse also holds true that a product which is harmless to an animal can prove harmful to humans.
Many activists have come out and protested against animal testing in India and around the world and in early 2014, India announced that there will be a total ban on testing cosmetics on animals within the nation and after this, India has become the second country in Asia to do this. Presently, cosmetic animal testing is banned in the European Union, Israel, Norway and India.
WILDLIFE CONSERVATION- Wildlife includes all the flora and fauna which grow in the wild and are not domesticated by the human beings. It consists of animals, plants as well as microorganisms. Conservation refers to the practice of protecting the wildlife species in their natural habitats. Wildlife conservation aims to ensure that nature will be present for the future generations so that they are able to enjoy and also it strives to make sure that people identify and realize the importance of wildlife and wilderness. Wildlife conservation has now become an important process and system due to the negative effects of daily human activities on wildlife. Endangered species are increasing and many of them are entering the extinct species list. Endangered species are those living species that have the danger of becoming extinct because of many reasons such as having low population or being threatened by recent environmental changes. A lot of countries in the world have special governmental agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) especially devoted to wildlife conservation and they help to execute numerous policies and programs designed to protect wildlife.
WILDLIFE CONSERVATION IN INDIA- Gone are the days when human interference with the nature was minimum. The number of various species of animals and plants was also high and the question of their conservation and protection never arose. However, now the situation is different. Apart from the various climatic changes and natural variations, many man-made occurrences have also had an adverse effect on our flora and fauna. As mentioned and discussed above, animal testing is one of the causes of the decrease in the number of wildlife in our country. Expansion of agriculture, industries, settlements and other urban activities have led to the decrease in the number of animals. Deforestation is also one of the major causes. Also, killing of animals for their meat, bones, hair, skin, teeth, etc also leads to pushing many animals to the brink of extinction.
In recent years, India has taken quite a few steps in the direction of wildlife conservation. Some of the notable steps are:
- Making surveys and researches and gathering all the information about the wildlife in our country.
- Protecting habitats of the animals by protecting the forests.
- Limiting pollution and protecting the animals from natural hazards.
- Imposing complete restriction on hunting and capturing the wildlife.
- Delimiting the areas of the natural habitats of the wildlife.
- Making special provisions for saving those species that are endangered.
- Creating more natural parks and sanctuaries.
- Imposing restrictions on the import and export of wildlife products.
- Creation of conservation areas- conservation areas are those which are well demarcated large geographical areas which are established having a well defined conservation plan. They are set up for the purpose of studying, conserving and improving the living conditions of the wildlife.
- NGOs in India- Many NGOs are working non-stop in India. They are wholly dedicated towards the goal of wildlife conservation.
- Many projects have been launched such as the Project Tiger launched in 1973 and the Project Elephant launched in 1992 with the aim of conserving tigers and elephants respectively.