It is the age of science and technology which result in the growth of industries. Now the progress is measured in term of industrial development because it contributes to economic prosperity and development of India. But Mahatma Gandhi is against of large-scale industrialization because he wanted self-sufficient villages which based on cottage industries and clean living.
As it is believed that no production is possible without labour so these labours are an active factor of production.
“It is labour indeed that puts the difference on everything”
Evils of Industrialization in India
The journey of agricultural or rural India to Industrial or urban India covers because of human greediness(wanting more than need) which is never-ending but if we will not change this nature then it leads our nation to end. Mahatma Gandhi and his followers want that India must avoid industrialisation. But his views were misunderstood by the people. People felt that he was opposed to heavy industries. But he said, “I want the big industry to prosper but not at the expense of the country”. It is true that industrialization makes country material in its outlook. People believe that luxury life and wealth accumulations are the be-all and end-all of life.
There are various new problem arises by industrialization which is categorized as (1) Economic Problem (2) Social Problem -:
Effect on the environment– One of the most common epidemic today is pollution which eats our environment slowly. Air pollution is one of the factors due to industries and factories causing global warming, greenhouse effect, climate change, ozone hole. These industries bring tons of pollution daily. They also caused land pollution by covering a large area of land and water pollution by releasing pollutants in the water. These factories contain hazardous material and if release cause a heavy disaster like Bhopal Gas Tragedy.
Child Labour– Because of this industrialization children are exploited as they work with low wages to fulfil their need and it interferes with their schooling and long work development. Article 24 of constitution mandates that no child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment. But after this child labour still in Industries of India.
Diseases– With the increase in industries various new type of disease comes. Many diseases like smallpox, typhus, typhoid, dysentery, diphtheria etc are the result of industrialization. And it affects on the pocket of poor’s because the treatment of these diseases is very costly and they will not able to pay these heavy bills so they come again to that stage where they start from because what extra wages, they get from industry work spent in medical and health expenses.
Social Problem-This problem faced by the workers and labours mostly as their condition is horrible in the industrial sector which caused emotional and psychological problem. They fight for the basic amnesties of life. After so much hard work they will not able to fulfil their basic needs which are Roti, Kapda and Makaan. They were treated like slaves.
It is believed that Industry is the way for the development of nation but in reality it is the way of development for rich only. Employer use ‘hire and fire’ theory in which he is free to remove workers or labours at any time from the work after getting advantage to increase their production.
Labour Issues in India
In India we always see a huge gap between rich and poor. We see how our society is a divide on the basis of class of rich and poor. Some of the major issues that we face are:
Illiteracy– As in our country we see that most of the labours are illiterate. They are not in the position to receive industrial training, understand the problem in industries and this illiteracy not only harm to them but harm the country also. Because of un-education they are not aware of their rights and face various problem in their life.
Unemployment– Labour market facing the problem of unemployment. As because of the huge population of India new labour market added with the existing labours every year and it reduce their demand in market so they work hard whole day with little wage.
Lack of Labour Reforms– Indian Labour Market suffering from lack of labour reforms. Economic reform in 1990 change the scenario of the labour system in India but after this country development in the field of labour, reforms stop.
Some act is misused like Industrial Dispute Act which says if any manufacturing firm with more than 100 workers then that firm cannot dismiss any worker without the approval of government, even that firm will go bankrupt then it has to pay to their workers so that Indian firm remain so small to safe them from the ambit of this act.
Industrial Backwardness– Indian industrial progress manage through the five-year plan but fully dependent on the efficiency of labours but because of low wages and more work effect on their health which indirectly reduces their efficiency. They have very great need of nutritive food and medical facilities. Their standard of living is very low as compare to other European countries.
We have seen that the labour market of India suffering from various problems and there are various laws, acts in the country but their proper implementation is the big question. The whole country is controlled by a few capitalists. So, it is the duty of government to make proper policies for labour reform in India which provide greater interest to people.
Excessive dependence on machines effects on the health of human beings as it makes them unfit so it is the time to emphasis on planned and balanced industrialization.
“The views of the authors are personal“
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the recent reform for the legal system in India?
Recently, parliament passed an act on Labour Code Wage for which benefit 500 million workers across the country and ensure minimum wages with timely payment to all workers and labours.
What are those factors which leads to industrialization in India?
Some of the most important factors that influence industrial productivity are: (1) To increase the economy of country (2) Technological development (3) Poor performance of Agricultural Sector.